Clubbing

Write about Clubbing here.


• Thoracic Causes:

Bronchial Carcinoma (usually not Small Cell)

Chronic lung suppuration

empyema, abscess

bronchiectasis

cystic fibrosis

Fibrosing Alveolitis

Mesothelioma


• GI Causes:

Inflammatory bowel disease (especially Crohn's Disease)

Cirrhosis

GI lymphoma

Malabsorption e.g. Coeliac


• Cardiac Causes:

Cyanotic congenital heart disease


• Rare:

Familial

Thyroid Acropachy (clubbing + subperiosteal new bone in phalanges, associated with hyperthyroidism)